2007/09/12

丹绒士拔养猪场 A Visit to a PIG FARM in Tanjong Sepat



丹绒士拔养猪场

文:谢宋美/李佩霜





早 一阵子某些猪农使用长肉剂的新闻不断引起轩然大波,消费者不敢食用猪肉导致肉贩生意下跌,养猪场一间间被迫关闭,无良的猪农惨害同业损失重大。目前政府规定全马仅四个州属可以合法养猪,分别为马六甲、霹雳、槟城和雪兰莪。在政府监督之下,长肉剂已经消声匿迹。

为了让广大读者了解猪肉的来源,在顾问施文康师傅的穿针引线之下,我们到雪兰莪丹绒士拔余宏兴先生的养猪场采访。

第一次参观猪农场,一下车就臭气扑鼻,很想放弃继续往前走的念头,但是既来之则安之,不久就习惯了那难闻的味道。

余先生今年三十余岁,却有二十多年养猪经验,他说:「一只健康的猪当然吃量要营养均衡,以玉米、黄豆渣、麦皮、麦糠混合饲料喂养。每只猪的食量都经过规划,不能让它们吃得太多或吃得太少。一只产后的母猪配以5公斤饲料;待产的母猪配以2公斤半饲料;普通的大猪食量是2.2公斤饲料;小猪就随意,但是为了不让小猪过肥还得控制它们的食量。」

他向我们详细讲解养猪过程:「每只公猪配10只母猪,首先会让公猪趴在人工授精架上抽取精液,经过化验之后才注入适合怀孕的母猪子宫内。」当被问是否一针就能见到其效果呢?余先生说:「这就要看看本身的技术,通常一次即能成功;若无效第二天再注入第二支针。」

余先生带领我们亲眼目睹母猪生产的过程一面解释:「母猪怀孕期介于112-116天,一头母猪能在两年内怀胎五至六次,每次平均生产9只猪宝宝,整个过程需耗两小时半。」余先生也告诉我们:「母猪的年龄越大,所生下的宝宝体质越差,所以超过两年的母猪不适合受精。」至于如何处理不再受孕的母猪?余先生表示说会把该母猪送到宰猪场解决。如果遇到母猪难产等事时,他们会剖开母猪的肚将猪宝宝取出。

刚出生的猪宝宝会有条长长的脐带,身上还粘着胎盘,待一天干了会慢慢的脱落。养猪并非一朝一夕的事,要不断的观察小猪的状态,若发现小猪病了或是有不适,他们就会把小猪移到特制的加护猪栏观察状况。小猪出生三十天后就必须离开母猪,打一支预防猪瘟的疫苗后送到保育室,让它们在那慢慢的成长。猪栏的面积介于14x16尺或16x18尺之间,每个猪栏可容纳8-9只体重大约有130-140公斤成长的猪只。最后,猪只售出之后必须将猪栏以白灰消毒,做足防范措施。

一个设备齐全的养猪场怎能忽略环境污染问题?余先生的养猪场对于排污系统绝不马虎,过滤系统把排泄物分开,猪粪做成有机肥,污水经过六个净化池,过滤清洁后才排入大海。


A Visit to a PIG FARM in Tanjong Sepat
By Catherine Chia & Lee Pei Shuang

Some months ago, an issue on the excessive use of beta agonist hogged the media daily. This is a banned growth hormone used by some unscrupulous breeders on pigs. Counter-measures were taken against them and those affected farms were placed on a month long quarantine. Bad reputation sparked off fears among many meat consumers. Many breeders suffered losses and some had to close shop for good. The government has declared pig rearing in only four states, namely- Malacca, Perak, Penang and Selangor and the matter of banned growth hormones will continue to be under surveillance. This has appeared to bring a halt to such activity.

As our issue 38 covers the theme of pork eating, we decided to visit a pig farm, to understand the subject of pig breeding better. Chef Sia Boon Kang introduced us to a breeder known as Mr. Yu Hong Heng, who owns a pig farm in the district of Tanjong Sepat.

As we stepped out of the car, a strong stench welcomed us. It was such a powerful odour which penetrated the air but after a while, as we got used to the overall environment, the odour became less obvious.

Mr. Yu is in his mid-thirties but packs in 20 over years of experience working on the farm. He gave us a vision on how pigs are raised. Accordingly, a healthy pig needs a balanced diet of corn kernels, soy beans residue, oats, mixed cereal feed to attain good growth. Every pig will have a different food ration as the needs are not similar. A female pig which has just given birth would need an eat of five kilos, a female pig due to be in labour soon can only be fed with two and-a-half kilos of food. Normal adult pigs are fed with 2.2 kilos ration but piglets are free to eat any amount. But it is not an ideal picture if the piglets put on too much weight at a young stage so there needs to be a control somehow.

It is interesting to note that an adult male pig can go through only 10 series of artificial semen extraction during its tiptop lifespan. The spermatozoon are kept in a laboratory to check for any abnormalities before being induced into the uterus of the female pigs. Only a single sperm is needed to fertilize each egg produced by the female. This artificial insemination method holds high rate of success but if it fails for one reason or another, the procedure is done a second time.

It was a lucky day as Mr. Yu led us to visit a mother pig nestled in ‘confinement’. A female pig’s pregnancy lasts a full trimester of 112 to 116 days. In a span of 24 months, she can conceive about five to six times. Each birth brings a litter of nine piglets. The whole process of a normal birth takes two and-a half hours. As every birth can be unique and in case of complication, the breeder or Mr. Yu is in his mid-thirties but packs in 20 over years of experience working on the farm. He gave us a vision on how pigs are raised. Accordingly, a healthy pig needs a balanced diet of corn kernels, soy beans residue, oats, mixed cereal feed to attain good growth.

It is interesting to note that an adult male pig can go through only 10 series of artificial semen extraction during its tiptop lifespan. The spermatozoon are kept in a laboratory to check for any abnormalities before being induced into the uterus of the female pigs. Only a single sperm is needed to fertilize each egg produced by the female. This artificial insemination method holds high rate of success but if it fails for one reason or another, the procedure is done a second time.
It was a lucky day as Mr. Yu led us to visit a mother pig nestled in ‘confinement’. A female pig’s pregnancy lasts a full trimester of 112 to 116 days. In a span of 24 months, she can conceive about five to six times. Each birth brings a litter of nine piglets. The whole process of a normal birth takes two and-a half hours. As every birth can be unique and in case of complication, the breeder or farmhand helps the mother pig with a ‘Caesarean section’.

Even female pigs can have their heydays as they must be SYT (sweet young things). At two years old, they have passed their prime. Female pigs who have lived beyond the watershed period may still be capable of conceiving but their offspring are not very desirable healthwise. Hence, they need not go through artificial insemination anymore but ends up in the abattoir. This meat is often sold under a different category.

Newborn piglets have long umbilical cords and placentas. It sheds off by itself after a day. Young piglets need some intensive attention and any piglet found not to be in a picture of health would be separated for observation, to help contain any disease outbreak. Piglets leave their mother after a weaning period of 30 days. Generally, each piglet is given a booster injection to help them ward off infection.

They must be cared for painstakingly, taking all possible precautionary measures until they are less vulnerable to any health attacks. Any piglet on health alert would be housed in special care units. Grown pigs are lodged in enclosures measuring 14’X16’ or 16’X18’. Each space can hold eight to nine fully grown pigs, all weighing between 130 to 140 kilos each. After the pigs are disposed off to the abattoirs, the enclosures are disinfected with white lime as sanitation arrangements can be very important.

This farm has a waste management system unlike others. Pigs’ excrement are turned into organic compost or fertilizer and other waste material are desludged. It goes through a six steps filtering process series, thereby churning cleaner water into the big sea.

One may not become an expert on livestock knowledge overnight but the visit is certainly an eye-opener and anything worth learning.

1 comment:

Yong Yiak Koon said...

请问余先生可以开放让小学生到农场参观吗?小朋友吃猪肉不知道养猪辛苦。